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Opening Speech by Dr. Busy day of preparations before the official opening ceremony of the Annual Meetings.

Department of Health

Benin: The road to progress. Welcome Message - Dr.

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Registration of Participants. Enregistrement des participants. Bioko Sofitel Sipopo Club House. Tue, 11 Jun, - Malabo time. Ruby Branch: master New pull request. Search Code Find File. Download ZIP. Sign in Sign up. Launching GitHub Desktop Go back.

Launching Xcode Launching Visual Studio Latest commit d20a Sep 27, Nomenclature Govspeak A variation of Markdown used throughout whitehall as the general publishing format Technical documentation whitehall is a Ruby on Rails app built on a MySQL database. You can generate a local copy with: yard server --reload You can also read the docs on rdoc. Licence MIT License. You signed in with another tab or window. Reload to refresh your session.

You signed out in another tab or window. Redirect html attachments to parent edition on deletion. Sep 27, Jan 16, Adapt code for Rails 5. Sep 1, Linting auto-correct. Once emitted into the atmosphere, the subsequent deposition of NH 3 can be a major source of pollution, causing nitrogen N enrichment eutrophication and acidification of soil and water sources. Atmospheric NH 3 also reacts with acid gases, such as sulphuric and nitric acid, to form secondary PM 2.

The main health impacts of NH 3 arise through its role in secondary PM 2. Thus, NH 3 not only plays a role in acidification and eutrophication but also contributes to the overall PM burden. Agricultural emissions of NH 3 have been reported to be key contributor to some short-term episodes of high PM pollution in recent years.

Ground level, or tropospheric O 3 , is not emitted directly into the air but is created by photochemical reactions involving the precursor pollutants NO x and volatile organic compounds VOCs. Several epidemiological studies have reported adverse associations between short-term exposure to O 3 and human health. The effects of exposure to O 3 are predominantly respiratory, but adverse effects on the cardiovascular system have also been reported. has a new home

Less convincing evidence exists for an association between long-term exposure to O 3 and impacts on human health. CO is a colourless, odourless and tasteless gas, produced when fuels such as gas, oil, coal and wood burn without enough oxygen.

The Star (Malaysia) - Wikipedia

These are sources of fuel used in many household appliances, including boilers, central heating systems, gas fires, water heaters, cookers and open fires. Burning charcoal, running cars and the smoke from cigarettes also produce CO gas. Exposure to high indoor levels can be fatal, while exposure to lower levels can result in symptoms that resemble flu, viral infections or food poisoning.

NMVOCs consist of a large variety of chemically different compounds and in the environment come from both natural and anthropogenic sources. The rate of decline was most pronounced in the s, largely reflecting the decline in coal mining, and has slowed in recent years. NMVOCs are emitted from a wide variety of products and processes including industrial processes and agriculture, and they also form a significant component of indoor air pollution emitted from household products.

In the outside atmosphere, NMVOCs react with NO x in the presence of sunlight to form tropospheric O 3 , known to be harmful to health and the environment. But some sensitive people may suffer irritation of the eyes, nose and throat, headaches and dizziness if they are exposed.

There are a number of sources of indoor air pollutants that can harm health including:.

Nursing home 5-star rating system exacerbates disparities in quality, by payer source.

PHE works with government and others to develop and review the evidence on indoor air quality. A tool to estimate the cost of air pollution for each local authority was made available, as part of this project. Air pollution can impact people of working age, which can also have economic effects, for instance, if they have to take days off work. Air pollution is not an issue that occurs in isolation. Pollution can be associated with other environmental hazards that affect health, and it can contribute to health inequalities.

However, measures that improve air quality can also offer wider public health and wellbeing co-benefits, including an improvement in overall environmental quality, increased physical activity, noise reduction, greater road safety and climate change mitigation. Multiple interventions, each producing a small benefit, can act cumulatively to produce significant overall benefits. When air pollutants enter the body, they can have effects on various different organs and systems, not just the respiratory system.

Emerging evidence suggests that air pollution may also affect the brain and is possibly linked to dementia and cognitive decline. There is also emerging evidence associating air pollution with early life effects such as low birth weight.

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Air pollution can affect everyone, and air in all areas of the UK contains some proportion of man-made air pollutants. The health effects of air pollution are complex, and range in severity of impact. In some cases, damage can be gradual and may not become apparent for many years. The 3 main conditions associated with air pollution are respiratory conditions such as asthma , cardiovascular disease CVD , and lung cancer, and there is emerging evidence for associations with dementia, low birth weight and Type 2 diabetes.

There is therefore a strong case for action to tackle air pollution, and action to improve air quality and health is a priority area for PHE. The following sections outline the various health effects and conditions that come about at different stages of life.

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Pregnancy and early childhood are critical times for the formation and maturation of body systems, and the time during which the most rapid changes take place. As well as potential effects on foetal growth, air pollution exposure is associated with low birth weight and premature birth.

Exposure to air pollution in early life can have a long-lasting effect on lung function. There is evidence that the process of normal lung function growth in children is suppressed by long-term exposure to air pollution. Throughout childhood, there is a natural development of lung function and maximising this is important, as low lung function leads to less reserve if lung disease develops. Lung function in adulthood slowly declines with age, and there is emerging evidence that air pollution and living near a busy road accelerate this decline, for both adults and older people. Minimising this is important to maximise reserve, especially if lung disease develops in later life. Asthma, a long-term inflammatory condition of the conducting airways of the lungs, leads to cough, wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Asthma symptoms in those who have the condition can be exacerbated by various stressors, including respiratory viral infection, allergen exposure, and episodes of elevated air pollution.

There is strong evidence for the effects of both short and long-term exposures to air pollution on CVD in adults. Air pollution can both contribute to the development of CVD and exacerbate heart conditions that already exist, with the strongest associations having been observed for PM. The risk of heart failure, myocardial infarction heart attacks , arrhythmias abnormal rhythms of the heart and stroke is increased by both short and long-term exposure to air pollution in susceptible individuals.

This includes older people and individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular and respiratory conditions. The strongest associations have been observed for fine PM , which is associated with both cardiovascular morbidity and a reduction in life expectancy as a result of increased death from CVD and respiratory disease and lung cancer. Despite the robust evidence for adults, it remains unclear whether exposure to air pollution during childhood influences CVD development in later life.

However, it has been found that in children, there are changes in biomarkers of cardiovascular function, such as blood pressure and pulmonary arterial pressure, after exposure to air pollution.